Monday, October 1, 2007

MS-DOS and command line overview

All DOS commands



MS-DOS and command line overview
Below is a listing of each of the MS-DOS commands currently listed on Computer Hope and a brief explanation of what each of the commands do. The below commands are all MS-DOS commands, which means not all the below commands will work in your version of MS-DOS and/or Windows command line. Clicking on the command will open the help page for that command with full details about it.
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
ANSI.SYS
Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.
APPEND
Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command.
ARP
Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices.
ASSIGN
Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter.
ASSOC
View the file associations.
AT
Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
ATMADM
Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager.
ATTRIB
Display and change file attributes.
BATCH
Recovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file.
BOOTCFG
Recovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini
BREAK
Enable / disable CTRL + C feature.
CACLS
View and modify file ACL's.
CALL
Calls a batch file from another batch file.
CD
Changes directories.
CHCP
Supplement the International keyboard and character set information.
CHDIR
Changes directories.
CHKDSK
Check the hard disk drive running FAT for errors.
CHKNTFS
Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors.
CHOICE
Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch file.
CLS
Clears the screen.
CMD
Opens the command interpreter.
COLOR
Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
COMMAND
Opens the command interpreter.
COMP
Compares files.
COMPACT
Compresses and uncompress files.
CONTROL
Open Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
CONVERT
Convert FAT to NTFS.
COPY
Copy one or more files to an alternate location.
CTTY
Change the computers input/output devices.
DATE
View or change the systems date.
DEBUG
Debug utility to create assembly programs to modify hardware settings.
DEFRAG
Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs.
DEL
Deletes one or more files.
DELETE
Recovery console command that deletes a file.
DELTREE
Deletes one or more files and/or directories.
DIR
List the contents of one or more directory.
DISABLE
Recovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers.
DISKCOMP
Compare a disk with another disk.
DISKCOPY
Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk.
DOSKEY
Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past.
DOSSHELL
A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users.
DRIVPARM
Enables overwrite of original device drivers.
ECHO
Displays messages and enables and disables echo.
EDIT
View and edit files.
EDLIN
View and edit files.
EMM386
Load extended Memory Manager.
ENABLE
Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver.
ENDLOCAL
Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.
ERASE
Erase files from computer.
EXIT
Exit from the command interpreter.
EXPAND
Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it's original format.
EXTRACT
Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets.
FASTHELP
Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them.
FC
Compare files.
FDISK
Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive.
FIND
Search for text within a file.
FINDSTR
Searches for a string of text within a file.
FIXBOOT
Writes a new boot sector.
FIXMBR
Writes a new boot record to a disk drive.
FOR
Boolean used in batch files.
FORMAT
Command to erase and prepare a disk drive.
FTP
Command to connect and operate on a FTP server.
FTYPE
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
GOTO
Moves a batch file to a specific label or location.
GRAFTABL
Show extended characters in graphics mode.
HELP
Display a listing of commands and brief explanation.
IF
Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing.
IFSHLP.SYS
32-bit file manager.
IPCONFIG
Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values.
KEYB
Change layout of keyboard.
LABEL
Change the label of a disk drive.
LH
Load a device driver in to high memory.
LISTSVC
Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers.
LOADFIX
Load a program above the first 64k.
LOADHIGH
Load a device driver in to high memory.
LOCK
Lock the hard disk drive.
LOGON
Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login.
MAP
Displays the device name of a drive.
MD
Command to create a new directory.
MEM
Display memory on system.
MKDIR
Command to create a new directory.
MODE
Modify the port or display settings.
MORE
Display one page at a time.
MOVE
Move one or more files from one directory to another directory.
MSAV
Early Microsoft Virus scanner.
MSD
Diagnostics utility.
MSCDEX
Utility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM.
NBTSTAT
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT
NET
Update, fix, or view the network or network settings
NETSH
Configure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS.
NETSTAT
Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information.
NLSFUNC
Load country specific information.
NSLOOKUP
Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network.
PATH
View and modify the computers path location.
PATHPING
View and locate locations of network latency.
PAUSE
Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command.
PING
Test / send information to another network computer or network device.
POPD
Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command.
POWER
Conserve power with computer portables.
PRINT
Prints data to a printer port.
PROMPT
View and change the MS-DOS prompt.
PUSHD
Stores a directory or network path in memory so it can be returned to at any time.
QBASIC
Open the QBasic.
RD
Removes an empty directory.
REN
Renames a file or directory.
RENAME
Renames a file or directory.
RMDIR
Removes an empty directory.
ROUTE
View and configure windows network route tables.
RUNAS
Enables a user to execute a program on another computer.
SCANDISK
Run the scandisk utility.
SCANREG
Scan registry and recover registry from errors.
SET
Change one variable or string to another.
SETLOCAL
Enables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else.
SETVER
Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs.
SHARE
Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
SHIFT
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program.
SHUTDOWN
Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt.
SMARTDRV
Create a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory.
SORT
Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen.
START
Start a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt.
SUBST
Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter.
SWITCHES
Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
SYS
Transfer system files to disk drive.
TELNET
Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt.
TIME
View or modify the system time.
TITLE
Change the title of their MS-DOS window.
TRACERT
Visually view a network packets route across a network.
TREE
View a visual tree of the hard disk drive.
TYPE
Display the contents of a file.
UNDELETE
Undelete a file that has been deleted.
UNFORMAT
Unformat a hard disk drive.
UNLOCK
Unlock a disk drive.
VER
Display the version information.
VERIFY
Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly.
VOL
Displays the volume information about the designated drive.
XCOPY
Copy multiple files, directories, and/or drives from one location to another.



MS-DOSListing of secret and/or unknown MS-DOS commands and options.



Below is a listing of MS-DOS commands that are not listed in any available help manual or in the commands syntax or are commonly unknown commands. Many of these commands that are known can be very useful when using MS-DOS, while some of the other commands are unknown and/or appear to do nothing.
Please use these commands cautiously, some of the commands can erase data and/or erase data without warning.
ATTRIB ,
The command is short for ATTRIB -a -h -r - s *.* (removes all attributes of a file).
BACKUP /HP
Unknown
DIR ,
This lists all files including hidden files, does not work in Windows 95 / 98 / NT / 2000.
DIR ...
Lists all directories that do not have extensions. In Windows 95 / Windows 98 will list the contents of the directories previous to the directory currently in.
DOSKEY /APPEDIT
Utilize doskey functions in MS-DOS command utilities such as edlin and debug.
DOSKEY /COMMAND
Unknown
DOSKEY /PERMANENT
Unknown
DOSKEY /SCRSIZE
Unknown
DOSKEY /XHISTORY
Unknown
FDISK /MBR
Recreates the Master Boot Record See CH000175 for additional information.
FDISK /PRI
See FDISK Page for additional information.
FDISK /EXT
See FDISK Page for additional information.
FDISK /LOG
See FDISK Page for additional information.
FDISK /Q
Prevents fdisk from booting the system automatically after exiting fdisk.
FDISK /STATUS
Shows you the current status of your hard drives.
FORMAT /AUTOTEST
Formats the hard drive without any prompting.
FORMAT /BACKUP
Like /AUTOTEST but it will ask you for a volume label.
FORMAT /Z:n
Command used with FDISK supporting FAT32, used to specify the cluster size in bytes where n is multiplied by 512.
MEM /A or /ALL
Adds a line into the MEM command tells the available space in HMA.
RESTORE /Y
Unknown
RESTORE /Z
Unknown
SET DIRCMD=0
Will make all directories hidden however still accessible, to get them back SET DIRCMD=
SHARE /NC
Unknown
TRUENAME
When placed before a file, will display the whole directory in which it exists.
VER /R
Tells you the Revision and if DOS is in HMA.




MS-DOS top 10 commands
Quick links
DOS top 10 commands

DOS top 10 command pages

See all of Computer Hope's Top 10's

MS-DOS help page


DOS TOP 10 COMMANDS
Below is a listing of the top 10 MS-DOS commands most commonly used and that you will most likely use during a normal DOS session.
1.
cd
2.
dir
3.
copy
4.
del
5.
edit
6.
move
7.
ren (rename)
8.
deltree
9.
cls
10.
format

TOP 10 COMMAND PAGES
Below is a listing of the top 10 MS-DOS command pages by the amount of times they have been accessed on the Computer Hope server.
1.
fdisk
2.
format
3.
copy
4.
xcopy
5.
dir
6.
cd
7.
deltree
8.
net
9.
Ansi
10.
ping




Computer Hope daily top 10
Quick links
OverviewTop 10 overall pagesTop 10 help pagesTop 10 issues pagesTop 10 dictionary definitionsTop 10 company pagesTop 10 drivers pagesRecent computer newsTop 10 MS-DOS commandsTop 10 Unix commandsRecent searches performed on Computer HopeLast 20 updated pages by section
Overview
This page is designed to point you to the hottest locations on Computer Hope. This information gives all users a better understanding of what computer users are looking at as well as a direct location to the hottest issues.
The information below is based off the amount of traffic generated to that page the previous day. All statistics displayed on this page are displayed without showing any personal information and without displaying any actual numerical representation of how many times the page was accessed.
Top 10 overall pages
- HTML color codes- MS-DOS help and commands- Area Code Look Up and Reference- How to create a boot disk- NTLDR is missing- Getting into Windows Safe Mode- Batch File Help- American Standard Code for Information Interexchange - ASCII- company listing and phone numbers- Source data diskMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Top 10 help pages
- Hard disk drive Help- Sound Card Help- CMOS information- Video Card Support and Help- Processor Information (CPU)- CD-ROM drive help and technical information- BIOS information and help- Floppy Disk Drive Help- mouse help and information- Serial port and com port helpMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Top 10 question and answer pages
- NTLDR is missing- Getting into Windows Safe Mode- How do I password protect my files and folders in Windows- How to get to a MS-DOS prompt- How to erase my hard disk drive and start over- How to enter the BIOS or CMOS setup- How to boot from a CD- NTOSKRNL.EXE is missing or corrupt- Runtime errors- My computer is running slow what steps can I do to fix itMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Top 10 dictionary definitions
- American Standard Code for Information Interexchange - ASCII- Source data disk- Soft-sectored disk- Laugh My A** Off - LMAO- Laugh out Loud - LOL- Hotmail- Basic Input/Output System - BIOS- Screen shot- Rolling On the Floor Laughing - ROFL- External commandMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Top 10 computer related company pages
- Microsoft company and contact information- Apple company and contact information- Hewlett Packard company and contact information- Intel company and contact information- Electronic Arts company and contact information- Asus company and contact information- Dell company and contact information- Acer America company and contact information- Sony Computer company and contact information- Symantec company and contact informationMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Top 10 driver pages
- video card drivers- Drivers- motherboard drivers and updates- sound card drivers- CD-ROM / CD-R / CD-RW / DVD drivers- printer drivers- hard disk drive drivers- NIC or network interface card drivers- scanner drivers- driversMore favoritesThis feature requires JavaScript.Click here for most popular pages
Recent Computer News
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DOS Command Index
Information about all current DOS commands



Click on a command name for complete information about that command and examples of its use.
APPEND
(External)APPEND ;APPEND [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]APPEND [/X:onoff][/path:onoff] [/E]Displays or sets the search path for data files. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file is not found in the current path.
ASSIGN
(External)ASSIGN x=y [...] /staRedirects disk drive requests to a different drive.
ATTRIB
(External)ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S]ATTRIB [+R-R] [+A-A] [+S-S] [+H-H] [d:][path]filename [/S]Sets or displays the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file or directory.
BACKUP
(External)BACKUP d:[path][filename] d:[/S][/M][/A][/F:(size)] [/P][/D:date] [/T:time] [/L:[path]filename]Makes a backup copy of one or more files. (In DOS Version 6, this program is stored on the DOS supplemental disk.)
BREAK
(Internal)BREAK =onoffUsed from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.SYS file to set (or display) whether or not DOS should check for a Ctrl + Break key combination.
BUFFERS
(Internal)BUFFERS=(number),(read-ahead number)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the number of disk buffers (number) that will be available for use during data input. Also used to set a value for the number of sectors to be read in advance (read-ahead) during data input operations.
CALL
(Internal)CALL [d:][path]batchfilename [options]Calls another batch file and then returns to current batch file to continue.
CHCP
(Internal)CHCP (codepage)Displays the current code page or changes the code page that DOS will use.
CHDIR
(Internal)CHDIR (CD) [d:]pathCHDIR (CD)[..]Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.
CHKDSK
(External)CHKDSK [d:][path][filename] [/F][/V]Checks a disk and provides a file and memory status report.
CHOICE
(Internal)CHOICE [/C[:]keys] [/N][/S][/T[:]c,nn] [text]Used to provide a prompt so that a user can make a choice while a batch program is running.
CLS (Clear Screen)
(Internal)CLSClears (erases) the screen.
COMMAND
(External)COMMAND [d:][path] [device] [/P][/E:(size)] [/MSG][/Y [/C (command)/K (command)]Starts a new version of the DOS command processor (the program that loads the DOS Internal programs).
COMP
(External)COMP [d:][path][filename] [d:][path][filename] [/A][/C][/D][/L][/N:(number)]Compares two groups of files to find information that does not match. (See FC command).
COPY
(Internal)COPY [/Y-Y] [/A][/B] [d:][path]filename [/A][/B] [d:][path][filename] [/V]orCOPY [/Y-Y][/A][/B] [d:][path]filename+[d:][path]filename[...][d:][path][filename] [/V] Copies and appends files.
COUNTRY
(Internal)COUNTRY=country code,[code page][,][d:][filename]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS to use country-specific text conventions during processing.
CTTY
(Internal)CTTY (device)Changes the standard I/O (Input/Output) device to an auxiliary device.
DATE
(Internal)DATE mm-dd-yyDisplays and/or sets the system date.
DBLSPACE
(External)DBLSPACE / automount=drivesDBLSPACE /chkdsk [/F] [d:]DBLSPACE /compress d: [/newdrive=host:] [/reserve=size] [/F]DBLSPACE /create d: [/newdrive=host:] [/reserve=size] [/size=size]DBLSPACE /defragment [d:] ]/F]DBLSPACE /delete d:DBLSPACE /doubleguard=01DBLSPACE /format d:DBLSPACE [/info] [d:]DBLSPACE /listDBLSPACE /mount[=nnn] host: [/newdrive=d:]DBLSPACE /ratio[=ratio] [d:] [/all]DBLSPACE /size[=size] [/reserve=size] d:DBLSPACE /uncompress d: DBLSPACE /unmount [d:]A program available with DOS 6.0 that allows you to compress information on a disk.
DEBUG
(External)DEBUG [pathname] [parameters]An MS-DOS utility used to test and edit programs.
DEFRAG
(External)DEFRAG [d:] [/F][/S[:]order] [/B][/skiphigh [/LCD/BW/GO] [/H]DEFRAG [d:] [/V][/B][/skiphigh] [/LCD]/BW/GO] [/H]Optimizes disk performance by reorganizing the files on the disk.
DEL (ERASE)
(Internal)DEL (ERASE) [d:][path]filename [/P]Deletes (erases) files from disk.
DELOLDOS
(External)DELOLDOS [/B]Deletes all files from previous versions of DOS after a 5.0 or 6.0 installation.
DELTREE
(External)DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[...]Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it.
DEVICE
(Internal)DEVICE=(driver name)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver to load.
DEVICEHIGH
(Internal)DEVICEHIGH=(driver name)Like DEVICE, DEVICEHIGH is used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver software to use for devices; however, this option is used to install the device driver into the upper memory area.
DIR
(Internal)DIR [d:][path][filename] [/A:(attributes)] [/O:(order)] [/B][/C][/CH][/L][/S][/P][/W] Displays directory of files and directories stored on disk.
DISKCOMP
(External)DISKCOMP [d:] [d:][/1][/8]Compares the contents of two diskettes.
DISKCOPY
(External)DISKCOPY [d:] [d:][/1][/V][/M]Makes an exact copy of a diskette.
DOS
(Internal)DOS=[highlow],[umbnoumb]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the memory location for DOS. It is used to load DOS into the upper memory area and to specify whether or not the upper memory blocks will be used.
DOSKEY
(External)DOSKEY [reinstall] [/bufsize=size][/macros][/history][/insert/overstrike] [macroname=[text]]Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can edit them.
DOSSHELL
(External)DOSSHELL [/B] [/G:[resolution][n]][/T:[resolution][n]]Initiates the graphic shell program using the specified screen resolution.
DRIVPARM
(Internal)DRIVPARM= /D:(number) [/C] [/F:(form factor)] [/H:(number)] [/I][ /N][/S:(number)] [/T:(tracks)]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set parameters for a disk drive.
ECHO
(Internal)ECHO onoffECHO (message)Displays messages or turns on or off the display of commands in a batch file.
EDIT
(External)EDIT [d:][path]filename [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]Starts the MS-DOS editor, a text editor used to create and edit ASCII text files.
EMM386
(External)EMM386 [onoffauto] [w=onoff]Enables or disables EMM386 expanded-memory support on a computer with an 80386 or higher processor.
EXE2BIN
(External)EXE2BIN [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filenameConverts .EXE (executable) files to binary format.
EXIT
(Internal)EXITExits a secondary command processor.
EXPAND
(External)EXPAND [d:][path]filename [[d:][path]filename[ . . .]]Expands a compressed file.
FASTHELP
(External)FASTHELP [command][command] /?Displays a list of DOS commands with a brief explanation of each.
FASTOPEN
(External)FASTOPEN d:[=n][/X]Keeps track of the locations of files for fast access.
FC
(External)FC [/A][/C][/L][/Lb n][/N][/T][/W][number] [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filenameor (for binary comparisons)FC [/B][/number] [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filenameDisplays the differences between two files or sets of files.
FCBS
(Internal)FCBS=(number)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the number of file-control blocks for file sharing.
FDISK
(External)FDISK [/status]Prepares a fixed disk to accept DOS files for storage.
FILES
(Internal)FILES=(number)Used in the CONFIG.Sys file to specify the maximum number of files that can be open at the same time.
FIND
(External)FIND [/V][/C][/I][/N] √ístring√ď [d:][path]filename[...]Finds and reports the location of a specific string of text characters in one or more files.
FOR
(Internal)FOR %%(variable) IN (set) DO (command)or (for interactive processing)FOR %(variable) IN (set) DO (command)Performs repeated execution of commands (for both batch processing and interactive processing).
FORMAT
(External)FORMAT d:[/1][/4][/8][/F:(size)] [/N:(sectors)] [/T:(tracks)][/B/S][/C][/V:(label)] [/Q][/U][/V]Formats a disk to accept DOS files.
GOTO
(Internal)GOTO (label)Causes unconditional branch to the specified label.
GRAFTABL
(External)GRAFTABL [(code page)]GRAFTABL [status]Loads a table of character data into memory (for use with a color/graphics adapter).
GRAPHICS
(External)GRAPHICS [printer type][profile] [/B][/R][/LCD][/PB:(id)] [/C][/F][/P(port)]Provides a way to print contents of a graphics screen display.
HELP
(External)HELP [command] [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]Displays information about a DOS command.
IF
(Internal)IF [NOT] EXIST filename (command) [parameters]IF [NOT] (string1)==(string2) (command) [parameters]IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL (number) (command) [parameters]Allows for conditional operations in batch processing.
INCLUDE
(Internal)INCLUDE= blocknameUsed in the CONFIG.SYS file to allow you to use the commands from one CONFIG.SYS block within another.
INSTALL
(Internal)INSTALL=[d: ][\path]filename [parameters]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to load memory-resident programs into conventional memory.
INTERLINK
(External)INTERLINK [client[:]=[server][:]]Connects two computers via parallel or serial ports so that the computers can share disks and printer ports.
INTERSVR
(External)INTERSVR [d:][...][/X=d:][...] [/LPT:[naddress]] [/COM:[naddress]][/baud:rate] [/B][/V]INTERSVR /RCOPYStarts the Interlink server.
JOIN
(External)JOIN d: [d:path]JOIN d: [/D]Allows access to the directory structure and files of a drive through a directory on a different drive.
KEYB
(External)KEYB [xx][,][yyy][,][d:][path]filename [/E][/ID:(number)] Loads a program that replaces the support program for U. S. keyboards.
LABEL
(External)LABEL [d:][volume label] Creates or changes or deletes a volume label for a disk.
LASTDRIVE
(Internal)LASTDRIVE=(drive letter)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the maximum number of drives that can be accessed.
LOADFIX
(Internal)LOADFIX [d:][path]filename [parameters] Ensures that a program is loaded above the first 64K of conventional memory, and runs the program.
LOADHIGH
(Internal)LOADHIGH (LH) [d:][path]filename [parameters] Loads memory resident application into reserved area of memory (between 640K-1M).
MEM
(External)MEM [/program/debug/classify/free/module(name)] [/page] Displays amount of installed and available memory, including extended, expanded, and upper memory.
MEMMAKER
(External)MEMMAKER [/B][/batch][/session][/swap:d] [/T][/undo][/W:size1,size2] Starts the MemMaker program, a program that lets you optimize your computer's memory.
MENUCOLOR
(Internal)MENUCOLOR=textcolor,[background] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the colors that will be used by DOS to display text on the screen.
MENUDEFAULT
(Internal)MENUDEFAULT=blockname, [timeout] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the startup configuration that will be used by DOS if no key is pressed within the specified timeout period.
MENUITEM
(Internal)MENUITEM=blockname, [menutext] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a start-up menu from which you can select a group of CONFIG.SYS commands to be processed upon reboot.
MIRROR
(External)MIRROR [d:]path [d:] path [...]MIRROR [d1:][d2:][...] [/T(drive)(files)] [/partn][/U][/1] Saves disk storage information that can be used to recover accidentally erased files.
MKDIR
(MD) (Internal)MKDIR (MD) [d:]pathCreates a new subdirectory.
MODE
(External)MODE nMODE LPT#[:][n][,][m][,][P][retry]MODE [n],m[,T]MODE (displaytype,linetotal)MODE COMn[:]baud[,][parity][,][databits][,][stopbits][,][retry]MODE LPT#[:]=COMn [retry]MODE CON[RATE=(number)][DELAY=(number)]MODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage) [d:][path]filenameMODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage list) [d:][path]filenameMODE (device) CODEPAGE SELECT=(codepage)MODE (device) CODEPAGE [/STATUS]MODE (device) CODEPAGE REFRESHSets mode of operation for devices or communications.
MORE
(External)MORE < (filename or command)(name)MORESends output to console, one screen at a time.
MOVE
(Internal)MOVE [/Y/-Y] [d:][path]filename[,[d:][path]filename[...]] destinationMoves one or more files to the location you specify. Can also be used to rename directories.
MSAV
(External)MSAV [d:] [/S/C][/R][/A][/L][/N][/P][/F][/video][/mouse]MSAV /videoScans your computer for known viruses.
MSBACKUP
(External)MSBACKUP [setupfile] [/BW/LCD/MDA] Used to backup or restore one or more files from one disk to another.
MSCDEX
(External)MSCDEX /D:driver [/D:driver2. . .] [/E][/K][/S][/V][/L:letter] [/M:number] Used to gain access to CD-ROM drives (new with DOS Version 6).
MSD
(External)MSD [/B][/I]MSD [/I] [/F[d:][path]filename [/P[d:][path]filename [/S[d:][path]filenameProvides detailed technical information about your computer.
NLSFUNC
(External)NLSFUNC [d:][path]filenameUsed to load a file with country-specific information.
NUMLOCK
(Internal)NUMLOCK=onoffUsed in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the state of the NumLock key.
PATH
(Internal)PATH;PATH [d:]path[;][d:]path[...] Sets or displays directories that will be searched for programs not in the current directory.
PAUSE
(Internal)PAUSE [comment] Suspends execution of a batch file until a key is pressed.
POWER
(External)POWER [adv:maxregmin]stdoff] Used to turn power management on and off, report the status of power management, and set levels of power conservation.
PRINT
(External)PRINT [/B:(buffersize)] [/D:(device)] [/M:(maxtick)] [/Q:(value] [/S:(timeslice)][/U:(busytick)] [/C][/P][/T] [d:][path][filename] [...] Queues and prints data files.
PROMPT
(Internal)PROMPT [prompt text] [options] Changes the DOS command prompt.
RECOVER
(External)RECOVER [d:][path]filenameRECOVER d:Resolves sector problems on a file or a disk. (Beginning with DOS Version 6, RECOVER is no longer available ).
REM
(Internal)REM [comment] Used in batch files and in the CONFIG.SYS file to insert remarks (that will not be acted on).
RENAME (REN)
(Internal)RENAME (REN) [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename Changes the filename under which a file is stored.
REPLACE
(External)REPLACE [d:][path]filename [d:][path] [/A][/P][/R][/S][/U][/W] Replaces stored files with files of the same name from a different storage location.
RESTORE
(External)RESTORE d: [d:][path]filename [/P][/S][/B:mm-dd-yy] [/A:mm-dd-yy][/E:hh:mm:ss] [/L:hh:mm:ss] [/M][/N][/D] Restores to standard disk storage format files previously stored using the BACKUP command.
RMDIR (RD)
(Internal)RMDIR (RD) [d:]pathRemoves a subdirectory.
SCANDISK
(External)SCANDISK [d: [d: . . .]/all][/checkonly/autofix[/nosave]/custom][/surface][/mono][/nosummay]SCANDISK volume-name[/checkonly/autofix[/nosave]/custom][/mono][/nosummary]SCANDISK /fragment [d:][path]filenameSCANDISK /undo [undo-d:][/mono] Starts the Microsoft ScanDisk program which is a disk analysis and repair tool used to check a drive for errors and correct any problems that it finds.
SELECT
(External)SELECT [d:] [d:][path] [country code][keyboard code] Formats a disk and installs country-specific information and keyboard codes (starting with DOS Version 6, this command is no longer available).
SET
(Internal)SET (string1)=(string2)Inserts strings into the command environment. The set values can be used later by programs.
SETVER
(External)SETVER [d:]:path][filename (number)][/delete][/quiet] Displays the version table and sets the version of DOS that is reported to programs.
SHARE
(External)SHARE [/F:space] [/L:locks] Installs support for file sharing and file locking.
SHELL
(Internal)SHELL=[d:][path]filename [parameters] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the command interpreter that DOS should use.
SHIFT
(Internal)SHIFTIncreases number of replaceable parameters to more than the standard ten for use in batch files.
SORT
(External)SORT [/R][/+n] < (filename)SORT [/R][/+n] > (filename2)Sorts input and sends it to the screen or to a file.
STACKS
(Internal)STACKS=(number),(size)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the number of stack frames and the size of each stack frame.
SUBMENU
(Internal)SUBMENU=blockname, [menutext] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a multilevel menu from which you can select start-up options.
SUBST
(External)SUBST d: d:pathSUBST d: /DSubstitutes a virtual drive letter for a path designation.
SWITCHES
(Internal)SWITCHES= [/K][/F][/N][/W] Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to configure DOS in a special way; for example, to tell DOS to emulate different hardware configurations.
SYS
(External)SYS [source] d:Transfers the operating system files to another disk.
TIME
(Internal)TIME hh:mm[:ss][.cc][AP] Displays current time setting of system clock and provides a way for you to reset the time.
TREE
(External)TREE [d:][path] [/A][/F] Displays directory paths and (optionally) files in each subdirectory.
TYPE
(Internal)TYPE [d:][path]filenameDisplays the contents of a file.
UNDELETE
(External)UNDELETE [d:][path][filename] [/DT/DS/DOS]UNDELETE [/list/all/purge[d:]/status/load/U/S[d:]/Td:[-entries]] Restores files deleted with the DELETE command.
UNFORMAT
(External)UNFORMAT d: [/J][/L][/test][/partn][/P][/U] Used to undo the effects of formatting a disk.
VER
(Internal)VERDisplays the DOS version number.
VERIFY
(Internal)VERIFY onoffTurns on the verify mode; the program checks all copying operations to assure that files are copied correctly.
VOL
(Internal)VOL [d:] Displays a disk's volume label.
VSAFE
(External)VSAFE [/option[+-]...] [/NE][/NX][Ax/Cx] [/N][/D][/U] VSAFE is a memory-resident program that continuously monitors your computer for viruses and displays a warning when it finds one.
XCOPY
(External)XCOPY [d:][path]filename [d:][path][filename] [/A][/D:(date)] [/E][/M][/P][/S][/V][/W][Y\-Y]Copies directories, subdirectories, and files.
Syntax NotesTo be functional, each DOS command must be entered in a particular way: this command entry structure is known as the command's "syntax." The syntax "notation" is a way to reproduce the command syntax in print. For example, you can determine the items that are optional, by looking for information that is printed inside square brackets. The notation [d:], for example, indicates an optional drive designation. The command syntax, on the other hand, is how YOU enter the command to make it work.
Command Syntax Elements1. Command NameThe DOS command name is the name you enter to start the DOS program (a few of the DOS commands can be entered using shortcut names). The DOS command name is always entered first. In this book, the command is usually printed in uppercase letters, but you can enter command names as either lowercase or uppercase or a mix of both. 2. SpaceAlways leave a space after the command name.3. Drive DesignationThe drive designation (abbreviated in this book as "d:") is an option for many DOS commands. However, some commands are not related to disk drives and therefore do not require a drive designation. Whenever you enter a DOS command that deals with disk drives and you are already working in the drive in question, you do not have to enter the drive designator. For example, if you are working in drive A (when the DOS prompt A> is showing at the left side of the screen) and you want to use the DIR command to display a directory listing of that same drive, you do not have to enter the drive designation. If you do not enter a drive designation, DOS always assumes you are referring to the drive you are currently working in (sometimes called the "default" drive). 4. A ColonWhen referring to a drive in a DOS command, you must always follow the drive designator with a colon (:) (this is how DOS recognizes it as a drive designation).5. PathnameA pathname (path) refers to the path you want DOS to follow in order to act on the DOS command. As described in Chapter 3, it indicates the path from the current directory or subdirectory to the files that are to be acted upon.6. FilenameA filename is the name of a file stored on disk. As described in Chapter 1, a filename can be of eight or fewer letters or other legal characters. 7. Filename ExtensionA filename extension can follow the filename to further identify it. The extension follows a period and can be of three or fewer characters. A filename extension is not required.8. SwitchesCharacters shown in a command syntax that are represented by a letter or number and preceded by a forward slash (for example, "/P") are command options (sometimes known as "switches"). Use of these options activate special operations as part of a DOS command's functions.9. BracketsItems enclosed in square brackets are optional; in other words, the command will work in its basic form without entering the information contained inside the brackets.10. EllipsesEllipses (...) indicate that an item in a command syntax can be repeated as many times as needed.11. Vertical BarWhen items are separated by a vertical bar (), it means that you enter one of the separated items. For example: ON OFF means that you can enter either ON or OFF, but not both.